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A River Thames Guide - Woolwich to Battersea

section 1. Woolwich Ferry to Millwall Dock
section 2. Docklands to St Katherine's Dock
section 3.Tower Bridge to Queen Boudicca
section 4.Westminster Bridge to Battersea




Docklands

The death of London's docks was sudden. In the early 1960's they appeared to be vibrant, powerful and the workers able to exert considerable political influence. Then, in 1967, soon after a record breaking year, the East India Dock closed. The following year The London and St. Katherine Docks went the same way. In 1970 the Surrrey Commercial closed followed by, in 1980, the West India Docks. In 1982 the Royal Docks were the last to close.

Apart from the social changes that the closures caused it also left huge areas of land derelict and unused. Something clearly needed to be done with all this land. The decision was made to convert the area into a giant enterprise zone which would attract companies from over crowded city areas and provide attractive, new accommodation in an area close to the centre of London.

First old wharves and warehouses began to be converted into apartments, then consideration was given as to how best to revive the actual docks. The London Dockland Commission was set up to oversee the great change. The flagship of Docklands is the Canary Wharf development. A huge office complex of 86 acres with, at it's heart, Canada Tower, an immense fifty storey sky-scraper, 800ft tall and designed by American architect Cesar Peli. It is the tallest building in Britain and dominates the London skyline for miles around. The tower can be seen from Canvey Island to Windsor. It has 3,960 windows and 4,388 steps. It has 32 passenger lifts which take 40 seconds to go from bottom to top. The tower is designed to sway 13 and three quarter inches in the strongest wind and 27,500 tonnes of British steel and 500,000 bolts were used in construction.

Not everything has gone as smoothly as developers would have wished and many schemes such as the River Bus and Canary Wharf itself have been beset by financial problems during the recession.

Many companies have taken advantage of the need to radically alter their production processes and combined that with a move to new Dockland premises. This has allowed them to embrace new technology within a whole new environment. The print industry is a good example. Very few newspapers now remain in Fleet Street, several having moved to new, "hi-tech" Dockland sites.

The changes in Dockland are most evident on the Isle of Dogs, with it's sky-scraper and Dockland Light Railway, however, the Royal Docks have not been omitted from the change. London City Airport is situated there and The Docklands Light Railway has been extended to there in order to allow better access. Changes on the south shore, in the old Surrey Docks have been based more on accommodation than business and many houses have been built in the public as well as the private sector.


Regent's Canal Dock

The Regent's Canal was begun in 1812 to provide a link between the terminus of the Grand Union Canal at Paddington and the Thames at Limehouse. It passes through Stepney, Hackney, Islington, Camden and Regent's Park.

Built by James Morgan, it opened in 1820. It has 40 bridges and 12 locks.

The entry onto the river is at Limehouse Basin. The dock had some ten acres of water and four acres of quays.

The Limehouse Cut is a canal which links Limehouse with the Lea Navigation, it is about a mile and a half long.

For some time the basin was unused, however, now owned by British Waterways, the basin is open and provides a gateway to the whole of the inland waterway network from the lower reaches of the Thames. The basin of the dock is now in use as a marina. On the Thames side of the lock is the Barley Mow pub. This occupies what used to be the dock masters house.


Ratcliff

Between the Isle of Dogs and Wapping, is Ratcliff, possibly named from the Saxon for "red cliff" due to the red colour of the soil there. From the 14th century this riverside area became busy with all manner of maritime occupations. Ship builders and chandlers flourished by the river. In the reign of Elizabeth I, Sir Hugh Willoughby (1553), and Martin Frobisher (1570's), set sail from here on their voyages to the northern oceans.

Ratcliff Cross was a most important location for watermen to ply for hire and Pepys often crossed the river here. The Cross itself probably stood on Narrow Street. This point was a welcome sight for sailors entering London as it marked the entry into the Lower Pool, and thus the end of the voyage.


Shadwell

This hamlet grew up alongside Ratcliff. By the middle of last century the population had reached 12,000 but this dropped to 9,000 when the extension of the London Docks into the Shadwell Basin meant the demolition of many homes. Of the two churches which can be seen from the river the more ornate of the two spires is St. Paul's, on the Highway. In the previous church on the site Wesley preached on five occasions. The present church dates from 1820 and was built for the parishioners who were mostly seamen and dockers. The other church is St. Mary's, Cable St.


Limehouse

The history of Limehouse closely reflects that of the neighbouring parishes and seamen and the river have played a big part in the growth of this community. The name derives from the large number of lime kilns or houses that were in the area. Dickens was a frequent visitor to his godfather's house near St. Anne's, where he was rector. Limehouse also had a reputation as a home for immigrants. "Lascars", the name then used for Indians, had a thriving community, however, it was the Chinese who became the most famous of the newcomers. Limehouse was the first "Chinatown" in London. The community consisted mostly of sailors working for the Blue Funnel Line around 1890. They did not number more than a few hundred but the antics of some drug users and gamblers was sensationalised by the press and so their reputation grew more than perhaps it deserved.











St. Anne's Church, Limehouse

In 1724 this church was built standing in open fields. Designed by Hawkesmore it has survived fire and wartime blitz and boasts the highest church clock in London. The church is still an impressive landmark to vessels navigating up Limehouse Reach and it is easy to see why sailors viewed it as an important landmark. In old prints the church is seen flying a white ensign, apparently, a privilege granted by the Admiralty to mark this fact. It is also said that babies born whilst at sea on a British vessel, would be baptised and the birth registered at St. Anne's when the ship docked.


King Edward VII Memorial Park

This park lies on the north shore. Laid out in 1922, it is on the sight of the old Shadwell Fish Market. Close to the Rotherhithe Tunnel ventilation shaft is a memorial to navigators; Stephen and William Borough, Sir Hugh Willoughby and Martin Frobisher who set sail on their voyages to the northern seas from close by Ratcliff to search for the legendary North West Passage route to Cathay.


The Grapes Pub

This 16th century riverside pub is on the Highway. It is said to be the pub on which Dickens based "The Six Jolly Fellowship Porters" in his novel "Our Mutual Friend" which was set on and around the river. The pub has been recently renovated in a traditional style and has a Dickens Room and a balcony overlooking the river. It is also said that the press gang would operate from the back room of the pub. The "volunteers" would be taken straight from the pub, put on board a ship and would wake up at sea.


The Prospect of Whitby Pub

Built in 1520 this pub was originally called the "Devils Tavern", perhaps because of it's associations with pirates and villains. In 1777 it changed name to the "Prospect" after a Whitby registered collier which was something of a local landmark. Dickens, Whistler and Turner were all customers here. Also, allegedly, an unknown plant was sold here to a keen gardener by a passing seaman and so the first fuscia entered the country.


Rotherhithe

Now mainly known for the tunnel across the Thames, Rotherhithe or Redriffe as Pepys knew it, dates back to at least Saxon days. The name probably derives from "redra" meaning sailor, and "hithe" meaning haven. From the 14th century a maritime community flourished here. During the 100 Years War, Edward, the Black Prince and John of Gaunt ordered that a war fleet be fitted out here. Later much of Rotherhithe was given over to the Surrey Docks.

Near the Scanic Hotel and the Greenland Dock entrance to the Surrey Docks is Nelson Dock House, an 18th century mansion and dry dock which was once owned by a family of ship builders, it was named after the hero of Trafalgar soon after the battle.








The Surrey Commercial Docks

The Surrey Docks were built upon the old Howland Great Dock, which was opened around 1700 and owned by John Howland. The dock covered ten acres, had berths for 120 vessels and was separated from the Thames by a lock. In 1763 it was sold and became the Greenland Dock and home to a fleet of whalers. The Greenland Dock was later absorbed by the Surrey Commercial complex which had nine docks and a three and a half mile canal; which is all that was ever built of the proposed Surrey Canal. The canal was supposed to have linked the Thames with the Wey, at Epsom. Unfortunately, it never got past Peckham. When the whaling industry declined the docks dealt in soft woods from the Baltic. When the Surrey closed in 1970 it covered a total of 120 acres. In 1943 the South Dock was emptied and used for the construction of Mulberry Harbours for use in the "D Day" landings. The old docks are now used as a marina and for water sports.


Cuckold's Point

The large bend in the river is known as Cuckold's Point. This used to be marked with a pair of horns mounted on a pole to commemorate Horn Fair which was held at Charlton. The story is that King John gave the fair as a concession, along with all the land from the point to Charlton, to a miller whose wife he had seduced after a hunting trip. The horns are the sign of a cuckolded husband. The steps adjacent to Canada Wharf are still known as Horn Stairs. Also at Cuckold's Point were hung the bodies of river pirates as a grisly example to other wrong doers.


Free Trade Wharf

Whatever you think of it's architectural merits, Free Trade Wharf certainly grabs the attention. The complex is supposed to resemble a sailing ship. The name originates from the philosophies about commerce and navigation of Adam Smith. The original wharf was known locally as the "Madhouse".


Rotherhithe Tunnel

Completed in 1908, this tunnel between Shadwell and Rotherhithe is 4,860ft in length and 48ft below the high water mark. The tunnel was built by Sir Maurice Fitzmarice. During the building some 3,000 people had to be rehoused.


Thames Tunnel

This was to be the first ever tunnel ever built under a river. Tunnelling began between Wapping and Rotherhithe in 1827 after much planning and discussion as to the feasibility of such a project. The engineer was Isambard Kingdom Brunel, working under orders and to the plans of his father, Mark. The scheme using Mark Brunel's revolutionary "Tunnelling Shield" system cost many lives and was dogged by financial problems. Work stopped between 1828 and 1835 when the money ran out but was completed in 1843 with a new and improved shield and after the government funded the work. The tunnel was for pedestrians only until 1869 when it was converted into a tunnel for the East London Railway, which ran trains from Brighton to New Cross Gate and Liverpool Street via Shoreditch. The line later formed the East London Section of the Metropolitan Line. The tunnel is 1,200ft in length. Mark Brunel's "Tunnelling Shield" has been used ever since, in one form or another, whenever it is needed to tunnel through soft ground or under water. Brunel's original engine and it's house can be seen in the park at the southern end of the tunnel.





Thames Division

In the late 18th century the river was crowded with ships; all waiting to unload their cargoes. The whole port acted as a magnet for every type of thief and villain who knew that easy pickings could be found amongst the ships which were lying at anchor and unprotected for as long as two months before being unloaded. The lines of ships that were waiting for their loads to be discharged either at a quay or by lighters, stretched for two miles above London Bridge and four miles below it. Once cargo was unloaded it was not safe because the security at wharves and warehouses was lax. It was estimated that one third of all persons working on and around the river were known thieves or receivers. In short, the place was a paradise for all the "light horsemen", "heavy horsemen", "scuffle hunters" and "river pirates" and any other of the rogues, vagabonds, rapscallions and ne're do wells that might choose to make a living at the expense of agencies like the West India Company, which, alone reckoned it lost between 150,000 and 230,000 per year to pilfering. The total amount lost from all companies was thought to be over 500,000.

Dr. Patrick Colquhoun worked as a magistrate in London and wrote a "Treatise on the Police of the Metropolis". He advocated enclosed docks where the unloading of cargo could be properly controlled. He also recommended the setting up of a semi official force of some 200 armed men, under a chief constable and responsible to a magistrate, paid for at the government's expense. The West India Company would in turn pay for a body of men to police the water and for watchmen on the quays. This force was to be recruited from sailors and watermen. The river police were thus formed on July 2nd 1798, making it the oldest police force in the world.

They were called the West India Merchants Marine Police Institute and their headquarters was at 259, Wapping New Stairs. These men were armed and led a hard and dangerous life, they worked 12 hour shifts with few days off. The boats they used were open rowing galleys with two constables and a surveyor to crew each boat. The original magistrate was John Harriott.

Within a few months, the river police had lost their first officer killed in action when Gabriel Franks, a "lumper", was shot during the Wapping Coal Riots, on 16th October 1798. James Eyers was convicted of his killing, although, it would appear that he did not fire the fatal shot. Eyers seems to have taken his conviction philosophically, when the judge said, 'may the Lord have mercy upon your soul.' He replied. 'Amen, I hope he will.'

The idea was a success and this fine body of men were a great deterrent to the criminal fraternity. In 1829 Sir Robert Peel organised the Metropolitan Police but it was another 10 years, in 1839, that the river police became part of the "Met", as Thames Division.

The work of Thames Division is varied. Their patrol extends from Dartford, in the east, to Staines, in the west, covering the whole of the river within the Metropolitan Police area, a total of some 55 miles of river and navigable creek, in addition, they provide marine expertise to the rest of the Metropolitan Police and run a national marine intelligence team, as well as the Underwater Search Unit. At present the division has four stations and moorings along the river: Wapping, Waterloo Pier, Hampton and Shepperton with the headquarters being at Wapping. The manpower is about 140.

The present station at Wapping was built in 1908 on the site of the original building, giving it a claim to be the oldest police station in the world. Also at Wapping is a small museum which charts the history of the river police.


Wapping

The name comes from the Saxon, it being the settlement of "Waeppa's People". The land was marshy and had to be drained before it could become a London suburb. Called by Stow 'Wapping in the Wose' or Wash. It developed as a riverside village, expanding and changing as the Thames became more important. The site of Execution Dock was in Wapping. By 1617 Wapping had it's own church, St.John's. This was rebuilt in 1760 but was bombed in the blitz and now just the tower remains. Wapping stayed a thriving maritime community until the 19th century when the London Docks took over the landscape and the village houses and businesses turned into warehouses. Wapping turned into a fortress with Brunel's tunnel offering one of the few ways out.

Dickens based much of his novel "Our Mutual Friend" on the area and it's inhabitants. In it he makes good use of the time he spent with the river police at Wapping.


Execution Dock

In attempting to pin-point the exact location of this rather gruesome place there is a problem, it would appear that there are several contenders for the honour.

Outside of the Town of Ramsgate pub, by Wapping Old Stairs, is a mock gibbet to signify it's claim to be the site. Alternatively, pictures exist showing executions taking place opposite the spire of St. Mary's, Rotherhithe. This would place the dock very close to the site of the "Captain Kydd" pub (named after one of the site's victims who was executed on 8th May 1701), and Woods' Pier.

In his "Survey of London", Stow sheds some light on the location and method of execution. 'From this precinct of St. Katherine to Wapping in the Wose, (Wash) the usual place of execution for hanging of pirates and sea rovers, at the low water mark, and there to remain till three tides have overflowed them, was never a house standing within these forty years; but since the gallows being after removed farther off, a continual street or filthy strait passage with alleys of small tenements, or cottages built, inhabited by sailors victuallers along by the river of Thames a good mile from the Tower.' This suggests that execution dock was moved at some time in the late 16th century, (Stow was Born in 1525), possibly from a site near Wapping Old Stairs to a site close to King Henry Stairs, a little to the east of Wapping Police Station. legend has it that the notorious "Hanging" Judge Jeffreys liked to visit the Angel Inn, Rotherhithe, and watch the gibbetings being carried out. If this is true then the Judge would have had a splendid view of the proceedings.

A visitor to the Prospect of Whitby pub will see a hangman's noose from the river side balcony and some people maintain that this too was a site for the infamous dock. We know for certain that the bodies of river pirates were hung in a cage on a gibbet at Cuckold's Point as a deterrent to others and it seems that the same was done at Blackwall Point. It appears that criminals were executed at Execution Dock, their bodies were then taken to these locations, strung up and left to decay. It would appear that these public executions continued until 1834.


Oliver's Wharf

Built in 1870 for George Oliver, it was owned from the 1930's by P.R. Buchanan and Co. They used it as a warehouse, mostly for tea. This was one of the first wharves to be converted to apartments.


St. Mary's Church

It would seem that a church has existed on this site since the middle ages. The present one dating from 1715. It has some quite unique features. The pillars are ships masts covered in plaster and the altar in the Lady Chapel and the bishops chair are made of wood from the (Fighting) "Temeraire". The Captain of the "Mayflower", Christopher Jones, is buried here as are three of the ships owners. Also buried here is Prince Lee Boo. He was the son of a cannibal chief who rescued the crew of the sloop "Antelope" when they shipwrecked off the Pelau Islands in 1783. The crew brought him to London as an act of kindness, unfortunately, he could not survive the English winter and he died.




The Mayflower

The original inn on this site was called the "Shippe" and was built around 1550. It was rebuilt in the 18th century and renamed the "Spread Eagle and Crown". It retained that name until about the late 1960's when it was renamed the "Mayflower" after the ship which carried the Pilgrim Fathers to America. "Mayflower" used to moor nearby and when it left London in 1620, it was from this location. In 1621 "Mayflower" returned to London. It's Captain, Christopher Jones, is buried in St. Mary's Church. The pub is genuine 17th century and has a fine view of the river. It is also licensed to sell postage stamps and also, apparently, American stamps as well.


The Angel

Originally a tavern called the "Salutation" and owned by the brothers of Bermondsey Abbey, the name changed to the "Angel" after the Reformation. Built on piles over the river, this must have been a great advantage to any smugglers able to take advantage of the trap doors in the floor. The "Angel" has a wonderful view of the river from it's balcony.


The Town Of Ramsgate

Situated at Wapping Old Stairs, the pub was formerly called the "Prince of Denmark". The pub is said to have changed it's name because of the Ramsgate fishermen who used to land their catch at the steps.

Execution Dock was said to be nearby and the mock gibbet at the rear of the pub commemorates this fact. Judge Jeffreys was allegedly arrested at the "Red Cow" pub, Wapping Old Stairs, as he attempted to escape on a ship bound for Hamburg. He was recognised by a former victim and had to be rescued from the mob by a squad of soldiers who conveyed him to the Tower, where he later died. However, it is now thought that the "Red Cow" was in Anchor and Hope Alley, much closer to Wapping New Stairs. The cellars of the pub were once used as dungeons for prisoners awaiting deportation.


London Docks

The docks opened in 1805 and for 21 years enjoyed a statutory monopoly on all goods such as; tea, coffee, rice, brandy, wine and wool which were not from the East or West Indies (which were handled in their own docks). The docks had fine brick warehouses and vast brick built, vaulted, wine cellars all linked by tunnels.

The London Docks were designed by Daniel Alexander who also built lighthouses for Trinity House and added the colonnades to the Queen's House at Greenwich in honour of Nelson's victory at Trafalgar.


Cherry Garden Pier

A wonderful name for such a dreary looking place, the name evokes what it must have looked like in the 17th century when it was a popular place to visit. It is possible that the name originates from the number of orchards and market gardens in this area prior to urbanisation. Pepys left 'singing finely' in 1664, perhaps after a visit to the "Angel" nearby. From here Turner painted his evocative picture "The Fighting Temeraire" (1838/9). The painting depicts the Trafalgar veteran, ghostly white against a flaming sunset, being towed to Beaton's shipyard, Rotherhithe, to be scrapped. Turner must be allowed a degree of poetic licence in this painting. According to witnesses at the time, when "Temeraire" was towed up river she had no masts and was in a dilapidated state, also, apparently, there was no visible sunset that day and in any case, if she was being towed up river then the sun could not be setting behind her. Fortunately, none of this detracts from Turners wonderful painting.
Also at Cherry Garden Pier, ships that needed Tower Bridge to be raised would give the sound signal of one long, two short, one long. Today the pier is a base for a pleasure boat company.


Rotherhithe Sculptures

Close to Cherry Garden Pier are a series of sculptures depicting facets of the area. To the east is a bronze figure of a pilgrim as if he is about to board the "Mayflower". Close by is the Knot Garden, a small park overlooking the Thames with large sculptures in the shape of seamen's knots. The third sculpture is the only one that can be seen from the river. It is a three piece work by Diane Gorvin, called "Dr. Salter's Daydream". It shows the good doctor seated on a riverside bench watching his young daughter, Joyce, playing a few yards away by the river wall, both are watched by their pet cat which sits on the wall and is the only part of the work which is visible from the water. Doctor Salter was something of a local hero. He moved to the area in 1898 and was one of the founders of the "Socialist Movement of Bermondsey" Joyce was born in 1903 and was educated locally. Tragically, she died when a child, of scarlet fever. Salter went on to become MP for the area and his victory was announced by his wife, Ada, the first woman mayor. Dr. Salter was famous in the area for his good works such as buying a country house to be used as a hospital for local people. He died of a stroke in 1945.


Bermondsey

The name probably derives from the Saxon, Beormond's Eye (island). He being a lord, possibly with land in the area. From the Norman era to the Reformation it boasted an important abbey. The area contains the second tunnel ever built under the Thames, from Tower Hill to Tooley Street, it was designed by P.W. Barlow and opened in 1870. The tunnel was only 7ft in diameter and carried a cable car passenger railway with tickets costing 2d. 1st class and 1d. 2nd class, it later became a foot tunnel. The completion of Tower Bridge spelt the end of it's useful life and it is now a forgotten tunnel used only to carry water pipes and cables. The tunnel entrance can still be seen on Tower Hill. Barlow's design remains the basis for tube tunnels today.

On the river front today are the Design Museum and the Bramah Museum which is devoted to the history of tea and coffee.


Horseleydown Brewery (Anchor Brewhouse)

Founded in 1787 by John Courage, the brewery's dray horses were stabled close by. In 1987 a life sized bronze sculpture of "Jacob" the dray horse was flown in by helicopter to Elizabeth Street where it now stands as the centre piece of a new development.


St. Saviour's Dock.

The dock was named after the patron saint of the monks from the Cluniac abbey of Bermondsey and they used it as their own port. Stow had this to say about it, 'In the south end whereof was sometime a priory or abbey of St. Saviour, called Bermond's Eye in Southwark, founded by Alwin Childe, a citizen of London, in the year 1081.'

The adjacent Shad Thames is on land formerly owned by the Knights Templar and the name derives from St. John at Thames.

The area gained notoriety in the last century when it was known as Jacob's Island. Dickens set the climax of his novel "Oliver Twist" there. It was in the mud of this disagreeable place that Bill Sikes met his violent death.

Jacob's Island stood where the River Neckenger (a term for "devil's neckcloth" or hangman's noose) joined the Thames and was described as 'The very capital of cholera' and the 'Venice of drains' by the Morning Chronicle of 1849.

Dickens was taken to this unsavoury location by the officers of the river police, with whom, he would occasionally go on patrol.

Dickens, a shrewd social commentator, gives us a vivid description of what this place must have looked like in "Oliver Twist": '.... crazy wooden galleries common to the backs of half a dozen houses, with holes from which to look upon the slime beneath; windows, broken and patched, with poles thrust out, on which to dry the linen that is never there; rooms so small, so filthy, so confined, that the air would seem to be too tainted even for the dirt and squalor which they shelter; wooden chambers thrusting themselves out above the mud and threatening to fall into it - as some have done; dirt-besmeared walls and decaying foundations, every repulsive lineament of poverty, every loathsome indication of filth, rot, and garbage: all these ornament the banks of Jacob's Island.'

A local politician attempted to deny the very existence of Jacob's Island. In reply Dickens gave him short shrift, describing the area as 'the filthiest, the strangest, the most extraordinary of the many localities that are hidden in London.'


St. Katharine's

In 1148 the Royal Hospital and the Collegiate Church of St. Katharine were founded here by Stephen's queen, Matilda. In the following century officials from the Tower began to settle within it's limits. A charter granted in 1442 declared that inhabitants were free from the civil jurisdiction of the city and the ecclesiastic jurisdiction of the Bishop of London. The area could grow, free from the restrictions of the city and the guilds. It proved to be a popular place for immigrants to settle, especially Flemish weavers and brewers.

There appears to have been some controversy over the building of St. Katharine Dock. The promoters of the scheme described the area as a 'Collection of hovels inhabited by the lowest sections of the community.' Other reports showed that it was a thriving and healthy community of traders and watermen. The lobby for the dock project was strong and the act to build the dock was passed in 1825. Some 1,250 houses were demolished and 11,000 people displaced.


St. Katharine Docks

The dock was opened in 1828 having been constructed by Thomas Telford and Philip Hardwick. The complex consisted of a large basin leading to two, four acre docks. The distinctive yellow brick warehouses were six storeys high and their iron columns rose sheer from the edge of the quay. The lock gates were not large enough to admit the largest ships and the docks were not a great success. In 1864, the St. Katharine Dock merged with the London Docks.

The dock closed in 1968 but have now reopened as a marina. Also built on this site is the Tower Hotel. The sculpture on the river front is "Girl with a Dolphin" by David Wynn.

Just down river from the dock is the jetty and building of HMS "President". The headquarters of the Royal Naval Reserve, London Division. It is known as a stone frigate and has replaced the ship, HMS "President" moored in King's Reach.



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Bibliography



The following publications have been used in compiling this guide book.


A Survey of London, by John Stow. / Dent Publications.
Americans in London, by Nicholas Barton. / Macdonald, Queen Anne Press.
Bluebird, by Martin Summers. / Collectors Books Ltd.
London River, by Gavin Weightman. / Guild Publishing.
London Under London, by Richard Trench and Ellis Hillman. / Guild Publishing.
London's Lost Riverscape, by Chris Elmers and Alex Werner. / Viking.
London's River, by Michael Leapman. / Pavilion.
London's Secret History, by Peter Bushell. / Constable.
London's Waterway Guide, by Chris Cove Smith. / Imrie, Laurie, Norie and Wilson.
Mayhew's London Underworld, by Henry Mayhew. / Century.
Old London, by Edward Walford. / Alderman Press.
River Thames, / London Tourist Board and the Thames passenger Service.
Rogue's River, by Frank Martin. / Ian Henry Publications.
The London Encyclopaedia, by Christopher Hibbert and Ben Wienreb. / Book Club Associates.
The Lost Rivers of London, by Nicholas Barton. / Historical Publications Ltd.
The Shorter Pepys, by Robert Latham. / Guild Publishing.
The Tower Of London, by Derek Wilson. / Constable.
The Wonderful Story Of London, by Harold Wheeler. / Odhams Press.


 

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